2G cellular, or second-generation cellular, refers to the second generation of mobile telecommunications technology, which enabled the digital transmission of voice and data over cellular networks. It was introduced in the early 1990s and was a major improvement over the first generation of cellular technology, which was primarily analog.
The history of 2G cellular can be traced back to the early 1980s, when the first generation of cellular technology was introduced. The first generation of cellular technology was based on analog signals, which were prone to interference and limited in terms of the amount of data that could be transmitted.
In the late 1980s, a group of European telecommunications companies began developing a new cellular technology that would be based on digital signals. This new technology, which became known as the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), was introduced in Europe in 1991 and quickly became the dominant cellular standard in the region.
GSM was soon adopted in other parts of the world, including North America and Asia, and became the foundation for 2G cellular networks. 2G networks provided a significant improvement over their analog predecessors, enabling digital transmission of voice and data, improved call quality, and the ability to send text messages.
In the years that followed, 2G technology continued to evolve, with the introduction of new features such as packet-switched data services and improved encryption. However, 2G technology eventually became outdated, and newer cellular technologies such as 3G and 4G were introduced to provide faster data speeds and improved network capacity.
Today, 2G cellular networks are being phased out in many parts of the world, as mobile operators move towards newer technologies such as 4G and 5G. However, 2G technology remains in use in some areas, particularly in developing countries where it provides a low-cost option for basic voice and data services.